Genocide Phases and Coping Phases

Eight Stages of GenocideBy Gregory H. Stanton (Originally written in 1996 at the Department of State; presented at the Yale University Center for International and Area Studies in 1998)

Genocide is a process that develops in eight stages that are predictable but not inexorable. At each stage, preventive measures can stop it. The later stages must be preceded by the earlier stages, though earlier stages continue to operate throughout the process.

The eight stages of genocide are:

Classification

Symbolization

Dehumanization

Organization

Polarization

Preparation

Extermination

Denial

 

UNITED NATIONS 58TH ANNUAL DPI/NGO CONFERENCE
OUR CHALLENGE: VOICES FOR PEACE, PARTNERSHIP & RENEWAL

UN New York 7-9 September 2005

Eight Stages of Healing from Mass Traum
By Ani Kalayjian (Forgiveness & Transcendence)

1. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

2. VALIDATION

3. JUSTICE AND REPARATION

 4. FACING FEAR, ANGER, SHAME, & HUMILIATION

 5. FACING DENIAL AND REVISIONISM

6. ACCEPTANCE AND FORGIVENESS

7. DESCOVERY OF NEW MEANING

8. LESSONS LEARNED & CLOSURE

"The more faithfully you listen to the voice within you, the better you hear what is sounding outside. Is this the starting point of the road towards the union of your two dreams – to be allowed in clarity of mind to mirror life, and in purity of heart to mold it?"

-Markings by Dag Hammarskjöld